By Christian Marazzi
The Swiss-Italian economist Christian Marazzi is without doubt one of the center theorists of the Italian postfordist circulate, in addition to Antonio Negri, Paolo Virno, and Bifo (Franco Berardi). yet even though his paintings is usually pointed out via students (particularly through these within the box of "Cognitive Capitalism"), his writing hasn't ever seemed in English. This translation of his latest paintings, Capital and Language (published in Italian in 2002), eventually makes Marazzi's paintings to be had to an English-speaking audience.
Capital and Language takes as its start line the truth that the intense volatility of monetary markets is usually attributed to the discrepancy among the "real economy" (that of fabric items produced and bought) and the extra speculative monetary-financial economic system. yet this contrast has lengthy ceased to use within the postfordist New economic climate, during which either spheres are structurally tormented by language and communique. In Capital and Language Marazzi argues that the alterations in monetary markets and the transformation of work into immaterial exertions (that is, its reliance on summary wisdom, basic mind, and social cooperation) are only aspects of an analogous coin.
Capital and Language specializes in the factors at the back of the overseas monetary and monetary melancholy of 2001, and at the basic device that the U.S. govt has considering the fact that been utilizing to stand them: conflict. Marazzi issues to capitalism’s fourth level (after mercantilism, industrialism, and the postfordist end result of the recent Economy): the "War Economy" that's already upon us.
Marazzi deals a thorough new figuring out of the present overseas financial degree and the most important post-Marxist information for confronting capitalism in its most recent shape. Capital and Language additionally presents a serious warning call to a Left nonetheless nostalgic for a Fordist construct—a time ahead of manufacturing facility became workplace (and place of work into home), and prior to exertions grew to become linguistic.
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Additional info for Capital and Language: From the New Economy to the War Economy
First of all, they change the relationship between conception and execution, and therefore the relationship between the intellectual content of work and its mate rial execution. Manual labor tends to be performed by machines commanded automatically, and innovative work, work which effectively produces value, is mental work. The material to be transformed is simulated by digital sequences. Productive work (work that produces value) consists in performing simulations which the computerized automatons then transfer onto the material" (Berardi, 2 00 1 , p.
The new technologies and the internet companies are the sym bols of the expansion and the crisis of the New Economy because they summarize the salient features of the post-Fordist transforma tion (naked life, work, and vulnerability) . " The multiplicity of individual beliefs "elected" the New Economy as an interpretative model of facts, choices, decisions, because the fusion between new technologies and financialization represented, for better or worse, the lived experience of millions of people coming to grips with the new post-Fordist paradigm.
The issue is not the end of work. " (Cohen, 200 1 ) . The increase in the amount of work was the consequence of adding new blocks of social time to the time for strictly executive work: relational-communication time, time for reflection, learning time (see Zarifan, 1 99 5 , 1 996, 200 1 ). Post-Fordism was structured so as to overcome the Tay loristic separation, sanctioned by the employment contract, of work and worker, between the work performed and the body of the worker. "Competence," "adaptability, " "reactivity, " "potential, " became the criteria for recruitment of the workforce, especially o f young workers.