By Nahikari Irastorza
Are immigrants extra enterprising than natives in Spain? How winning are migrant marketers in comparison to those that begin companies of their state of start? With the expansion of migration around the globe, questions akin to those are garnering the eye of economists, policymakers and students. Born marketers? asks how foreignness impacts an immigrant's skill to release and to develop a winning enterprise. It additionally explores the commercial and social advantages that immigrants could derive from self-employment and the original components at play in so-called ethnic and immigrant entrepreneurship.
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Additional resources for Born Entrepreneurs?: Immigrant Self-Employment in Spain
This dissertation aims to fill these gaps in the literature by analysing the entrepreneurial activity of immigrants in Spain both before and after start-up. While the first part of the literature review analyses the propensity of immigrants to engage in entrepreneurial activities in Spain, the second and third parts focus on the performance of immigrants’ businesses. More specifically, in the second part I present an overview of the factors associated with firm survival, whereas in the third one I discuss the economic benefits immigrants’ may obtain from self-employment.
From another point of view, the disadvantage hypothesis (Light 1972; 1979) holds that immigrants choose self-employment as an alternative to unemployment and non-satisfactory job conditions. In other words, entrepreneurial activity becomes an avenue for the socioeconomic advancement of the disadvantaged (Constant et al. 2003; Constant and Zimmermann 2004; Bauder 2005). Thus, I assume that a reasonable amount of individuals who belong to low-income segments of the population and have no easy access to the labour market will find selfemployment as a logical alternative for their subsistence (necessity-driven entrepreneurs).
Part II: Theoretical discussion 3 Literature review Over the last decades the proliferation of entrepreneurial activities of immigrants in European countries has been driven by increasing immigration from economically less developed countries. e. France, Germany, the Netherlands), have led to important advances in the research on ethnic and immigrant entrepreneurship (Light 1972, 1979, 1990, 1993; Bonacich 1973, 1987; Portes 1986, 1989, 1990; Aldrich and Waldinger 1990; Waldinger et al. 1990; Bates 1997; Rath 2000, 2002; Rath and Kloosterman 2000; Constant and Zimmermann 2004; Zimmermann et al.