Download e-book for kindle: Boiler Efficiency and Safety: A Guide for Managers, by W. L. Robertson

By W. L. Robertson

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Extra info for Boiler Efficiency and Safety: A Guide for Managers, Engineers and Operators responsible for Small Steam Boilers

Sample text

The presence of acid could increase the corrosion rate by several orders of magnitude, but the strength and type of acid will affect the rate. The carbon dioxide in steam makes the condensate acidic and thus bicarbonates in the feed water must be minimised by use of the correct type of softening process. Calcium and magnesium bicarbonates decompose when heated to give calcium and magnesium carbonate plus carbon dioxide. ~ ~ ~ Water Treatment 47 process itself needs careful control and the treatments described require a supplementary stage to act as a corrosion control.

Routine testing The increasing use of a 'water grid' means that in times of drought the quality of the town mains water could be changed without warning, from perhaps a relatively soft water to quite a hard water. Rapid build-up of scale could occur without the user's knowledge, perhaps requiring expensive repairs. Sometimes large users may be told about quality changes by the Water Authority but the best safeguard against such occurrences is for simple testing to be carried out daily. Modern water-treatment plants are relatively complex and, even with good standards of maintenance, can develop faults.

Permanent hardness is caused by salts such as calcium sulphate or calcium silicate, which are not affected by boiling. The differences between the two types of hardness are academic in water treatment and they are not distinguished in what follows. Hardness is measured by the equivalent amount of calcium carbonate, expressed as parts per million (ppm). Prevention of scale The technique used depends on the quality of the raw water to be treated. In fact, when water quality is good and with low pressure packaged boilers working at pressures of up to 16 bar, it is quite possible simply to add chemicals to the water in the boiler, using the boiler itself as the reaction vessel.

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