By Michael R. Trimble, Mark S. George
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The amount of transmitter released is related to the calcium levels and the presynaptic input. The response is thus plastic, and further varied by the postsynaptic variation in ion channels. Single vesicles can release up to 5000 molecules of a neurotransmitter. A further consideration is the retrograde control of presynaptic activity by diffusible messengers from the postsynaptic cell. Nitrous oxide (NO) is a gaseous messenger involved in longterm potentiation (LTP). NO is synthesized in the postsynaptic cell following calcium inﬂux at the N-methy-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and diffuses back to the presynaptic terminals, altering transmitter release.
Hydrogen atoms that are generated react with oxygen to form water, and further molecules of ATP are generated. Since other products of digestion undergoing catabolism also utilize the tricarboxylic acid cycle, it represents a ﬁnal common path, and almost two-thirds of all energy released in the breakdown of food occurs during the reactions of this cycle. 7). Glucose is ﬁrst phosphorylated by hexokinase PROTEINS AND FATTY ACIDS While glucose is the most important food involved in metabolism, proteins and fatty acids are also involved.
The steroid hormones can also modulate GABA receptors (sometimes called neurosteroids when they have effects on neurone). The distribution of GABA receptors with different subunits varies widely in brain; alpha subunits localize especially with 5-HT and catecholamine neurone. More recently, extra-synaptic GABA receptors have been identiﬁed, which are thought to act by using the overspill of GABA from the synapse, and provide tonic background inhibition. This tonic conduction is activated by low ambient levels of GABA.