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Extra info for Biological Interactions with Surface Charge in Biomaterials
In addition, the DC relaxation current caused by the release of Surface Charge Measurements on Biomaterials in Dry and Wet Conditions 33 trapped charge carriers is induced. This current is collected as a function of temperature. TSDC measurement is a sensitive method, allowing measurement of very low depolarization currents (down to 10À17A). 2). By continuously decreasing the temperature down to T0 (usually room temperature), the oriented dipoles will be frozen. At the temperature T0, the external electrostatic ﬁeld is switched oﬀ.
Electrons are excited from the valence band (VB) to the conduction band (CB), leading to creation of electron–hole pairs. 15–18 The fundamental photocatalysis process is expressed in eqn (1): TiO2 þ hv ! TiO2 ðhþ þ eÀ Þ ð1Þ where h1 is the positively charged hole, e– is the electron, h is the Planck’s constant and v is the frequency of the incoming photon. 24 TiO2 exists in three diﬀerent crystalline phases: anatase, rutile and brookite. 25 Anatase structures have a large speciﬁc surface area and a higher degree of hydroxylation of the surface than rutile structures.
Thus, the excitation energy is expanded from UV to visible light. Electrons excited from VB by absorbing visible-light photons could be captured by the inter-band trap site. The formation of two sub-energy levels (defect level and 4f level) in Ln–TiO2 may be a key reason to eliminate the recombination of electron–hole pairs and to enhance the photocatalytic activity. Based on above-mentioned beneﬁcial properties of Ln ions, their modiﬁcation into TiO2 photocatalysts showed a signiﬁcant improvement eﬀect in the degradation of organic dyes.