H. Berg (auth.), Giulio Milazzo, Peter E. Jones, Liliana's Biological Aspects of Electrochemistry: Proceedings of the PDF

By H. Berg (auth.), Giulio Milazzo, Peter E. Jones, Liliana Rampazzo (eds.)

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Read Online or Download Biological Aspects of Electrochemistry: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium. Rome (Italy) Istituto Superiore di Sanit`, May 31st to June 4th 1971 PDF

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Additional info for Biological Aspects of Electrochemistry: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium. Rome (Italy) Istituto Superiore di Sanit`, May 31st to June 4th 1971

Example text

The plane dividing the layer of fixed ions (and water molecules) from free layer is called streaming plane and the potential in this plane is called the electrokinetic potential, C or zeta potential. It can be now understood, at least qualitatively, why the motion of the fluid phase with respect to the solid gives streaming potentials. g. sodium chloride): the situation with respect to the charge distribution is shown in Fig. 4. e. " Th<: transport of those charges causes a difference of potential generating an electric current between the two ends of the capillary (conduction current) opposite to the convection current.

As reference electrode (the common practice in polarography). E. , at 25 DC. , for a redox system to be reversible, it must involve only rapid elementary steps with neither a large I1H* nor a large negative I1S*. For an electrode reaction, k/,h Ox + ne~Red (5) kb,h where k/,h and kb,h represent the formal forward and backward rate constants for the heterogeneous electron-transfer process, the rate is rapid only if the difference in structure between the reactant or substrate and product is not appreciable; the latter is also true for homogeneous and presumably biological heterogeneous redox reactions.

Under such conditions, it is possible to assess the validity of a presumed equilibrium state for thermodynamic measurements and, at the same time, to evaluate the rate of such reactions when the equilibrium state no longer exists. , reactions involving redox couples, Ox + n e ? ) (1) 37 which reach equilibrium rapidly. E. at pH 7. Such potentials are often measured for specified conditions, including the use of concentrations rather than activities, and are designated as formal or conditional potentials, E~ or EO/.

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