By Irwin Altman, Joachim F. Wohlwill
The topic of the current quantity matters humans' s reaction to the average setting, thought of at scales various from that of a home carry plant to that of big desert components. Our determination to target this actual section of the actual atmosphere used to be caused partly by means of the intrinsic curiosity during this topic at the a part of a various team of sodal scientists and professionals-and of laypersons, for that topic and partly by means of the relative forget of this subject in average remedies of the environment-behavior box. It additionally serves to convey out once more the interdisdplinary nature of that box, and we're happy to were in a position to inc1ude representatives from geography, sodology, soda! ecology, and typical activity between our participants. We think that this quantity will serve an invaluable objective in assisting to combine the locate ings and ideas during this shortly a little bit fragmented box, scat tered as they're over a really various array of guides representing a equally various crew of spedalties. it truly is was hoping that the end result can be to stimulate destiny improvement of this zone and so as to add a degree of in creased coherence to it. quantity 7 of our sequence might be dedicated to the subject of aged humans and the surroundings, with M. Powell Lawton becoming a member of us as visitor co-editor. The titles of the papers comprising quantity 7 are proven on web page v. Irwin Altman J oachim F. Wohlwill ix Contents advent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Additional resources for Behavior and the Natural Environment
Within a classification, models tend to share basic assumptions and goals, even though they may differ somewhat in the specific techniques that they employ. Criticism of assessment methods must consider these underlying conceptual frameworks; different goals and assumptions must be taken into account. Evaluation of approaches can be based on general criteria that have traditionally been applied to measurement systems of all kinds (Craik & Feimer, 1979; Daniel, 1976; Feimer, Smarden, & Craik, 1981).
B. ), Cognition and categorization. : Lawrence Eribaum, 1978, pp. 28-48. , & Lloyd, B. B. ). Cognition and categorization. : Lawrence Eribaum, 1978. Rossman, B. , & Ulehla, Z. J. Psychological reward values associated with wilderness use: A functional reinforcement approach. Environment and Behavior, 1977, 9, 41-66. Shepard, P. Man in the landscape. New York: Knopf, 1967. UIIrich, J. , & UIIrich, M. F. A multidimensional scaling analysis of perceived similarities of rivers in western Montana. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1976, 43, 575-584.
Suppose we accept for the moment the plausibility of the assumption that the prevalent instances of movement observed in the two environments differ in their intensity. If we add to that differences in regularity or predictability of such movement (which may be assumed to be greater for the natural as opposed to the man-made realm, again considering primarily the outdoor environment), we may have already part of the answer to the supposedly greater relaxation and restoration that people experience or look for in natural environments.