By A. Chandrasekar
Fundamentals OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE-PHI-CHANDRASEKAR, A.-2010-EDN-1
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The standard rain gauge can provide only the 24-hour accumulated precipitation and not the timing and the intensity of the observed precipitation. For obtaining the timing and the 26 u BASICS OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE intensity of the precipitation, an automated collector called the tipping bucket gauge is used. 7 shows a continuous recorder rain gauge of the siphon type. The tipping bucket gauge, like the standard rain gauge funnels the precipitation from the top and the accumulated water is stored in one of the two pivoting buckets.
The above change in the dielectric constant causes a change in the capacitance of the unit which can be electronically recorded. Electrical hydrometers, the dew point hygrometer, the infrared hygrometer and the dew cell are some of the other modern humidity measuring devices available. The electric hygrometer is based on the principle of a change in resistance across a carbon-coated plate due to absorption/release of water vapour with the change of humidity as an electric current is passed through the plate.
The lever is coupled with a rotating drum and a pen arrangement providing continuous record of the air temperature. 2 Thermo-hygrograph. In addition to the above, there exist other accurate instruments to measure air temperature, such as the resistance thermometer. In this resistance thermometer, an electric current is sent through a thin filament made of either a conductor or a semiconductor material, which is exposed to the air. The temperature of the thin filament is the same as the temperature of the air in contact with the filament and the resistance to the electric current depends on the air temperature.