By Nader Hassanzadeh
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RNA has catalytic properties (the ribozymes of Cech and many others). e. ). g. ). The biosynthesis of histidine is uses ATP and PRPP. The biosynthesis of deoxynucleotides is from ribonucleotide diphosphates. The biosynthesis of dTMP is from dUMP (Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) into deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) in cells). e. TMV. Plant viroid RNAs (≈ 400 nt, catalytic RNA, Code no protein). 43 RNA & cell formation RNA is a sister molecule to DNA, used when DNA breaks up to create proteins or replicate.
32 Pre-RNA World PNA/TNA /GNA PNA is more stable than RNA and appears to be more readily synthesised in prebiotic conditions, especially where the synthesis of ribose and adding phosphate groups are problematic. Threose nucleic acid (TNA World)has also been proposed as a starting point, as has Glycol nucleic acid (GNA World). ” DNA and RNA have a ribose sugar backbone, whereas PNA's backbone is composed of repeating N-(2aminoethyl)-glycine units linked by peptide bonds. Backbone of PNA contains no charged phosphate groups.
Some call the phylogenetic classification as genotypic classification, since it is based on actual differences among cells. 59 Phylogeny and systematics Phylogeny refers to the history of a species, to its relationships to other species (in Greek phyl - refers to tribe; gen - refers to origin or descent). Systematics refers to the methods used to discover that history (in Greek systematos refers to a complex whole put together). Hoekstra-Chap13,2005 60 Traditional systematics vs. phylogenetic systematics 1.