By Vojo Deretic (auth.), Vojo Deretic (eds.)
Autophagy and phagocytosis are distinctive but in part morphologically comparable tactics. In Autophagosome and Phagosome, authoritative scientists current easy-to-follow tools on autophagy, a swiftly growing to be box with a necessity for criteria of overview, and phagocytosis, a comparatively mature box that can profit tremendously from up-to-date equipment, on the way to recommended extra explorations in their similarities and changes. The equipment on autophagy let the reader to discover applicable recommendations to spot, computer screen, and quantify autophagic approaches, whereas the equipment dedicated to phagocytosis offer researchers with a number of smooth thoughts for in vitro and in vivo experiences of phagosomal organelles. Following the profitable Methods in Molecular Biology™ sequence structure, chapters comprise step by step laboratory protocols, lists of priceless fabrics, and assistance for troubleshooting and warding off recognized pitfalls.
Comprehensive and forward-thinking, Autophagosome and Phagosome bargains a beneficial advisor to either mobile strategies whereas inciting researchers to discover the possibly vital connections among the two.
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However, it is also a tightly regulated adaptive mechanism that enhances cell survival under various environmental and cellular stresses, including nutrient deprivation, oxidative stress, accumulation of misfolded proteins, bacterial and viral infection, toxic stimuli, and irradiation (9,10). One of the most efficient triggers of autophagy is starvation. In response to culture in nutrient-free media, cells degrade nonessential components to meet the cell’s energetic demand as well as to provide metabolites for vital biosynthetic reactions.
17. Dunn, W. A. (1994) Autophagy and related mechanisms of lysosomal-mediated protein degradation. Trends Cell Biol. 4, 139–143. 18. Eskelinen, E. L. (2005) Maturation of autophagic vacuoles in mammalian cells. Autophagy 1, 1–10. 19. Dunn, W. A. (1990) Studies on the mechanisms of autophagy: formation of the autophagic vacuole. J. Cell Biol. 110, 1923–1933. 28 Eskelinen 20. Dunn, W. A. (1990) Studies on the mechanisms of autophagy: maturation of the autophagic vacuole. J. Cell Biol. 110, 1935–1945.
The arrow indicates a small vesicle, possibly about to fuse with the latter autophagic vacuole. MVB, multivesicular body/endosome. in the sections. Therefore, the animals should be fasted before tissue preparation if glycogen-containing tissues such as liver or muscle are to be cryosectioned for electron microscopy. Acknowledgments The author would like to thank Pirkko Hirsimäki (Turku, Finland) and Hilkka Reunanen (Jyväskylä, Finland) for the initial introduction to the secrets of electron microscopy and autophagy.