By North G.R., Erukhimova T.L.

This textbook offers a uniquely built-in technique in linking either physics and chemistry to the learn of atmospheric thermodynamics. The booklet explains the classical legislation of thermodynamics, specializes in a variety of fluid structures, and, spotting the expanding value of chemistry within the meteorological and weather sciences, devotes a bankruptcy to chemical thermodynamics together with an outline of photochemistry. even supposing scholars are anticipated to have a few heritage wisdom of calculus, normal chemistry and classical physics, the e-book offers set-aside refresher containers as precious reminders. It includes over a hundred diagrams and graphs to complement the discussions, and the same variety of labored examples and routines, with recommendations incorporated on the finish of the ebook. it truly is perfect for a single-semester complicated path on atmospheric thermodynamics, and should arrange scholars for higher-level synoptic and dynamics classes.

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**Example text**

52×109 collisions s−1 . 6 What is the typical number of collisions with a wall perpendicular to the x-axis per unit area per unit time? Let the conditions be STP. 3. 2 Distribution of velocities 29 and v can be taken to be roughly the vrms of the previous example. Hence, there are about 1027 collisions per second with the 1 m2 wall at STP. So where did the divisor 6 come from? It comes from a careful integration over all the angles, etc. A simple minded (but correct) way of obtaining it is to note that 13 of the molecules are going in the x direction, but only half of these are going in the +x direction.

Such processes are said to be diffusive, and they are rather slow compared to some ﬂuid motions such as convection. 4). Imagine a molecule going left and right across the box and bouncing back at the walls. A round trip takes a time 2L/v0 where v0 is the speed of the molecule. At a reﬂection it experiences a change of momentum (m0 v0 ) = 2m0 v0 . Each reﬂection imposes an impulsive force to the wall (see the physics refresher below). The frequency of such reﬂections (by the entire box of molecules) is so large that the force is effectively steady (we shall see later that typical molecular speeds are hundreds of m s−1 ).

26 Gases This total force on the wall should also be the pressure × the area of the wall which can be expressed as F = pressure × area = pL2 . 8) where the overbar indicates statistical averaging over the probability distribution of molecular speeds, v0 . Since we know the equation of state for an ideal gas (from experiments), p = n0 kB T , we can use this along with the relationship just found to identify the corresponding coefﬁcients and arrive at the new relationship: 3 1 m0 v02 = kB T 2 2 [kinetic energy and Kelvin temperature].