By Jan de Houwer, Frank Baeyens, Andy Field
Personal tastes are assumed to play an important function in lots of phenomena which are studied in studying psychology, social psychology, patron technology, emotion study, and scientific psychology. Given the pervasive effect that personal tastes have on behaviour, it is very important be aware of the place those likes and dislikes come from. even if a few personal tastes are genetically decided, so much stem from studying that happened in the course of the life of the person. during this distinctive factor, the editors specialize in one such form of studying: associative studying of likes and dislikes, that's, adjustments in liking which are end result of the pairing of stimuli. earlier reviews on evaluative conditioning have proven that pairing an affectively impartial stimulus with an affectively optimistic or unfavorable stimulus will switch the liking of the initially impartial stimulus. The papers which are a part of this designated factor discover the relevance of evaluative conditioning for social psychology, offer new facts in regards to the influence of contingency wisdom, awareness, and extinction trials on evaluative conditioning, and think about even if pairing stimuli may also lead to the move of non-evaluative stimulus houses.
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Additional resources for Associative Learning of Likes and Dislikes: A Special Issue of Cognition and Emotion
As a result of EC, phobic objects themselves often elicit an aversive reaction without signalling a negative event. Extinguishing the contingencies between a spider and a phobic reaction may ORGANISATION OF SHORT-TERM MEMORY 189 therefore not alter the negative attitude towards a spider. Accordingly, several therapists have applied counter-conditioning with positive US, such as music, to change the intrinsic negative attitude towards the phobic object (Eifert, Craill, Carey, & O’Connor, 1988). One implication of the spreading attitude effect within EC is that a negative or positive attitude towards an individual or event does not presuppose a direct evaluative experience.
04); thus, also in a BPL paradigm, a reactance effect was obtained. However, the subgroup analysis revealed that this reactance effect was only seen in participants classified as aware, whereas participants considered to be unaware showed the basic EC effect (see Figure 1). 0074). It was not possible to conduct a test for the subgroup “unaware” because of its small size. REACTANCE IN AFFECTIVE-EVALUATIVE LEARNING 205 TABLE 1 Experiment 1: Descriptive statistics for evaluative response data in baseline (ER1) and test phase (ER2) Note: N-L and N-N stimuli were previously neutral stimuli paired either with liked (L) or neutral (N) stimuli.
Van den Berg, O. (1989). Acquired affective evaluative value: Conservative but not unchangeable. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 279–287. , & Crombez, G. (1992b). The content of learning in human evaluative conditioning: Acquired valence is sensitive to US revaluation. Learning and Motivation, 23, 200–224. , & Eelen, P. (1993). The role of CS-US contingency in human evaluative conditioning. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 731–737. , & Hymes, C. (1996). The automatic evaluation effect: Unconditional automatic attitude activation with a pronunciation task.