By Otfried Höffe
This is often an English translation of Otfried Hoffe's research, initially in German, providing the lifestyles and works of Aristotle, revealing him as a latest, forward-thinking thinker. matters of ethics, politics, metaphysics, psychology, biology and rhetoric are all mentioned and Aristotle is additionally in comparison to a number of different philosophers, in particular these of German foundation. Hoffe has been a number one contributor to debates on ethical, felony, political and philosophical topics for nearly thirty years.
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Additional resources for Aristotle
THEORETICAL First Philosophy Theology Mathematics Ontology Principles of Thought III. PRODUCTIVE Natural Science Applied: Pure: Astronomy, Arithmetic, Harmony, Geometry etc. Philosophical Foundation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. II. PRACTICAL Ethics Cosmology Meteorology Psychology1 Secondarily, psychology belongs partly to mathematics, partly to first philosophy. Botany will be practised only by Theophrastus. Rhetoric belongs also to II, but because of its neutral value it belongs chiefly to III. Not practised by Aristotle.
In the standard formulation of APr. I 4 (25b37–39), though, it can be defined. Besides, through the indirect (converse) equivalents, Aristotle recognizes all syllogisms of Figure IV. The “x” in the formulae stands for the moods. The combination of the three figures with four moods in each of the three partial propositions results in three times 43 ϭ 192 moods, 4 x 6 ϭ 24 of which show themselves to be valid syllogisms. Since Aristotle does not count the a fortiori valid inferences, that is, those with a particular conclusion, he recognizes fourteen moods only (I ϭ 4, II ϭ 4, III ϭ 6: APr.
Those who want to be good at debating always keep the relevant points of view ready, knowing them by heart (Top. VIII 14, 163b17–23). By being devoted to exactly that purpose, the Topics serves the nowadays neglected field of discourse logic. Its descriptive section is composed of two autonomous parts: the theory of the use of nonscientific, “endoxastic” premises, and the finding or constructing of arguments with the guidance of topoi (literally: places). Surprisingly, the Topics never defines its basic concept, neither on its own nor in relation to the endoxa; according to the Rhetoric (I 2, 1358a12–14), it is concerned with general points of view (koinoi) which are equally valid for law or justice, nature, politics, and much else.