New PDF release: Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in the North Korean Gulag

By Chol-hwan Kang, Pierre Rigoulot

North Korea is this day one of many final bastions of hard-line Communism. Its leaders have saved a decent grab on their one-party regime, quashing any nascent competition routine and sending all suspected dissidents to its brutal focus camps for "re-education." Kang Chol-hwan is the 1st survivor of 1 of those camps to flee and inform his tale to the realm, documenting the extraordinary stipulations in those gulags and offering a private perception into lifestyles in North Korea. half horror tale, half historic record, half memoir, half political tract, this list of 1 man's affliction provides eyewitness evidence to an ongoing sorrowful bankruptcy of recent history.</Div>

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The young Queen Wilhelmina, under advice from her prime minister of the Christian Anti-Revolutionary Party, proclaimed the new policy for the new century when in 1901 she formally inaugurated a benevolent ‘Ethical Policy’, intended to bring progress and prosperity to the natives, including the provision of education and other opportunities. 18 A History of Modern Indonesia Because this aim was so vague, the Policy could be interpreted in different ways: as a beacon of economic progress, with which the liberals could identify; as a means of improving the welfare of the peasantry, which socialists advocated; as a force for Christianity, to please religious parties; or as a set of general guidelines to ease the local people into the modern world.

These seventeenth-century Dutchmen set up this colony as investors in the world’s first great multinational company, the United East India Company. Batavia became the centre of its Asian trading network. Over the next 200 years, the Company acquired additional ports as trading bases and safeguarded its interests by gradually taking over surrounding territory. By 1800 the Company had been closed down, but the Dutch had achieved control over most of Java, parts of the larger island of Sumatra, the fabled eastern spice islands of Maluku (the Moluccas) and the hinterlands of various ports where they had established bases for themselves, such as Makasar on the island of Sulawesi (Celebes) and Kupang on the island of Timor.

While a Dutch resident earned what was considered a modest sum by the standards of his equivalents in other colonial systems – f 13,500 per annum (US$5,400) – the highest-paid coolies would have needed to work day and night for a year to earn f 300 in total, let alone pay tax on it. More than 80 per cent of the taxpayers of Java and Madura earned less than this. In theory the vote was given to women after a long struggle, but as a result of official stalling they never actually got to exercise that right, mainly because they did not pay tax.

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