By John E. Hobbs
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These examples from Australia provide good illustrations of the great variability that is possible within overall trends. It is interesting to note the estimate of Pittock (1975) that the area of significant (95 per cent level) rainfall change in Australia (1941-74 means compared with 1913-40 means) is about what would be expected from a random data set. Much of the observed variations in rainfall can be accounted for more or less as a random fluctuation, although there is no doubt that in some districts locally significant climatic changes have occurred, with important economic and social consequences.
M. can be given at 1 -5 to 3-0 °C. He also pointed out that the response could be several times higher at high altitudes and that feedback mechanisms could modify estimates several-fold. Possible feedback mechanisms such as increased cloudiness would reduce incoming solar radiation and so tend to counteract warming, but increased sea surface temperatures could mean reduced carbon dioxide uptake in the oceans and hence enhanced warming. 5). The model also predicts that the activity of the hydrologic cycle will be increased by 7 per cent.
LO^km-2 termination period of 10 000 years. Secondary oscillations are apparent with glacial growth over 20 000-30 000 years and retreats in 1000 years. Smaller time-scale, but significant, fluctuations have also been identified, such as the Little Ice Age from 1500-1700 AD, the northern hemispheric warming trend from the 1880s to the 1940s, and the southern hemisphere warming trend from the early 1950s. g. St Louis and Edmonton, Fig. 2). Examination of recent chmatic history gives what can best be described as a confusing picture.