By Shawn Loewen, Luke Plonsky
"A short and obtainable advent to the techniques and strategies utilized in utilized linguistics examine, so that it will be illustrated utilizing real-life examples. The publication covers either qualitative and quantitative study layout, sampling techniques, instrumentation and analyses present in utilized linguistics research"--
summary: "A short and obtainable advent to the strategies and methods utilized in utilized linguistics study, for you to be illustrated utilizing real-life examples. The e-book covers either qualitative and quantitative study layout, sampling methods, instrumentation and analyses present in utilized linguistics examine"
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Extra resources for An A-Z of applied linguistics research methods
Furthermore, because data is usually collected from numerous students in order to conduct statistical analyses, there is also the assumption that individual variation in the data will be minimized, thereby providing a relatively accurate picture of language proficiency at specific stages. A criticism of cross-sectional research is that it does not actually provide evidence of how individuals develop, and it is not always appropriate to assume that groups of different learners will accurately represent development.
Covariate A variable that influences the dependent variable being investigated, and yet it is not an independent variable of primary interest. Covariates are also referred to as moderator variables and, if not handled appropriately, may act as confounding variables. , the independent C r a m e r ’s V 39 variable), for example, learner proficiency might act as a covariate, unintentionally affecting the results of the study if the researcher does not control for level of proficiency. If pretreatment differences in group proficiency levels are observed, they need to be addressed in some way.
Other, seminal, case studies in applied linguistics include Schmidt’s (1983) investigation of Wes and Schumann’s (1978) study of Alberto. Schmidt investigated Wes’s development of requests over a three-year period and concluded that the participant’s communicative competence improved considerably during this time; however, there was no corresponding increase in linguistic accuracy. Similarly, Schumann conducted a 10-month research study on the linguistic development of Alberto, a naturalistic learner of English in the USA.