Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and by L. Magnani PDF

By L. Magnani

This ebook ties jointly the worries of philosophers of technology and AI researchers, exhibiting for instance the connections among clinical pondering and health worker structures. It lays out an invaluable common framework for dialogue of a number of varieties of abduction. It develops vital rules approximately elements of abductive reasoning which were quite ignored in cognitive technology, together with using visible and temporal representations and the function of abduction within the withdrawal of hypotheses.

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1 Abduction and induction in logic programming The syllogistic account of abduction we described above is the starting point of much research in AI and logic programming devoted to perform tasks such as diagnosis in medical reasoning and planning. In these logical and computational accounts abduction and induction are considered as separate fornls of reasoning related to different tasks. 3, abduction is especially - but not only - viewed as hypothesis generation and induction as a logic of hypothesis evaluation).

Obviously the method is used frequently in contemporary science and medicine, and is as powerful as the generator of possibilities. According to Laudan, however, the method of proof by eliminative induction, advanced by Bacon and Hooke, was dropped after Condillac, Newton, and LeSage argued successfully that it is impossible to enumerate exhaustively all the hypotheses that could conceivably explain a set of events. The force of the refutation lies in the open-endedness of the language of science.

How a hypothesis surpasses the alternatives. How the hypothesis is good in itself. Its confidence in the accuracy of the data. How thorough was the search for alternative explanations (Josephson, 2oo0b). There is no agreement about which preference criteria to adopt. Hendricks and Faye (1999), speak, in the case of science, about correctness (concerning the world that it is investigating), empirical adequacy, simplicity (different kinds of), unification, consistency, practical usability, economy.

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