By Yujiro Hayami, Masao Kikuchi
The rice belt of Laguna Province, Philippines (popularly often called the heartland of the fairway Revolution, for its early adoption of contemporary rice varieties), has skilled dramatic financial and social alterations over the last 3 many years. in addition to the most important advances in new rice know-how, 4 significant forces have brought on swap: expanding inhabitants strain on constrained land, implementation of land reform programmes, advancements in infrastructure akin to irrigation and roads, and penetration of city financial actions. a special information set generated from 11 surveys in the course of 1966-97 in a standard village in Laguna, as prepare during this publication, illustrates a development of socio-economic switch shared via many irrigated rice parts within the Philippines in addition to in different Asian economies.
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Extra resources for A Rice Village Saga: Three Decades of Green Revolution in the Philippines
The increased demand for hired labour attracted migrants from coconut villages in the hills and mountain, where no major technological advance had occurred comparable to MV. The rice farmers’ bonanza was further enhanced by a government programme called ‘Masagana 99’ that was initiated in 1973 under President Marcos. 5 tons of rice per hectare, as against the prevailing national average of about 35 cavans. It was an extension–credit–input package programme intended to promote diffusion of the new rice technology.
In East Laguna Village, the first step (called Operation Leasehold after the Presidential Decrees) was started on a pilot scale in 1968, and in 1972 the operation was intensified to cover all the paddy fields cultivated by villagers. ) As a result, the percentage of sharecroppers among rice farmers decreased sharply, from 80 per cent in 1966 to 40 per cent in 1976, while that of leasehold tenants increased from 20 per cent to Chronology of the Village 35 70 per cent. Share tenancy continued to be practised, but within the narrow circle of relatives and close friends despite the law denouncing this contract.
The diffusion of MV was accompanied by the increased application of fertilizers and chemicals. Although exact data are not available, we can make a reasonable guess that the input of fertilizer, as measured by the aggregate weight of nitrogen, phosphate and potash, increased more than four times from less than 20 kg to about 80 kg per hectare during the Chronology of the Village 33 decade of the Green Revolution. Correspondingly, the average paddy yield per hectare per crop season doubled from a little less than two tons to nearly four tons.