By William Edward Maxwell
Sir William Edward Maxwell (1846-1897) of the internal Temple, Barrister-at-Law; Assistant Resident, Perak, Malay Peninsula, was once the writer of A handbook of the Malay Language (1882).
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Guruda. 27. ” —Sir William Jones, As. Res. iv. 28. Ainslie’s Materia Medica, Madras, 1813. , kanana karavira, Plumieria alba. 29. Perhaps a corruption of nila-gandhi. Ainslie gives the Sanskrit name as jela-nirghoondi. 30. J. nanas; S. kanas; Bat. honas; D. kanas; J. and S. balimbing; Bat. balingbing. xlvi 31. Crawfurd, very likely correctly, derives this from the Portuguese baluârte, a bulwark. 32. Journ. Ind. , v. 572. 33. Crawfurd, Malay Grammar, Dissertation ccii. 34. These two words must have been originally used by Malays in the sense which they bear in Sanskrit.
Jantan and betina are also applied vulgarly to persons. If an apparent exception is found in such words as putra, a prince, and putri, a princess, derivation from a foreign language may be 3 A Manual of the Malay Language suspected. The inflexion in the word just cited is due to the rules of Sanskrit grammar. DECLENSION. There is nothing in the Malay language which corresponds with the cases of a Latin, Greek, or Sanskrit noun, which are formed by changes of termination, or of a Hindustani noun, which are formed by postpositions.
Danda. J. and S. kunjara; Mak. panjara; Bat. binjara; a trap; D. jara and panjara, punished. J. and S. mardika; Bat. , and D. maradeka; Tag. 35 After the conversion of the Malays to the faith of Muhammad, the traditions of Hinduism were gradually confused with the aboriginal superstitions, and neither have been entirely obliterated by the cult which superseded them. The belief in the power of malignant spirits to cause misfortune, sickness, and death is still strong among the Malays, whose pawangs or medicinexxxii men claim to be able to propitiate demons by spells, prayers, and offerings.