By Kenneth Burke
Approximately this publication Mr. Burke contributes an introductory and summarizing comment, "What is concerned, once we say what everyone is doing and why they're doing it? a solution to that question is the topic of this booklet. The e-book is anxious with the elemental sorts of by which, in keeping with the character of the area as all males inevitably event it, are exemplified within the attributing of reasons. those sorts of even though should be embodied profoundly or trivially, in truth or falsely. they're both found in systematically elaborated or metaphysical buildings, in criminal judgments, in poetry and fiction, in political and medical works, in information and in bits of gossip provided at random."
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With the antinomies of substance complicate the pattern. For the owners' state, in its governmental aspects, is anything but passive. Indeed, the property structure au~omaticall~ contains an act o£ expropriation, since the workers receive much less than they produce; and the structure o£ the state is designed to keep this act of expropriation in force. From this point of view, it is the state that is active, while the workers suffer its action. " But our grammar would lead us to doubt whether a '6 state" can ever really "wither away," and least o£ al1 in a complex industrial society.
Instante, if a reformer would advocate important political or social,-hanges on the ground that the present state of affairs stimulates he can be "scientifically refuted" by a calcuius which postulates ucombative instinct," or "drive towards aggression," or "natural urge a to kily in all people or certain types o£ people. For if such motives are btrinsic to human agents, they may be expected to demand expression whatever the social and political structure may be. when a person has his mind set upon the interpreting of human motivationin a calculus that features an innate "combative instinct" urge to kill," one may as well accept his decision as a stubor born fact of nature; instead of tryiig to dispel it, one should try to get around it.
There is also, of course, a "supernauiralist humanism," but it would be exactly the same as the kind of doctrine we here cal1 simply supernaturalism. And similarly what we here c d humanism could be characterized more fully as "naturalistic humanism," or simply "naturalism," as in the following citation from an essay by John Dewey, assigning an intrinsic motive to human nature: Naturalism finds the values in question, the worth and dignity of men and women, founded in human nature itsetf, in the connections, actual and potential, of human beings with one another in their natural social relationships.